Wild Honey Bees in Community Environments - Identification, Biology, and Reducing Risks
The goal of this publication is to provide readers with basic information about wild honey bees in Arizona. The document includes information on the identification, biology, and behavior of wild honey bees, the risks they pose outdoors, and how to safely deal with bees encountered in the environment.
Mistaken Identity: The Cicada Killer Wasp and the Asian Giant Hornet
The recent conjectures about the Asian giant hornets (AKA murder hornets) have been a topic of several news stories. The Extension team and I have received several calls and inquiries for the identification of wasps confused with the Asian giant hornet. While there have been no confirmed sightings of the Asian giant hornet in Arizona, we do however have cicada killer wasps, which are also very large, at first glance can be confused with the Asian giant hornet, and can be found in large number due to the recent emerging of cicadas. Gene Hall, Peter Ellsworth, and Naomi Pier have developed a new Short publication to set the record on differentiating between the two wasps.
Cotton Insecticide Use Guide, Knowing and Balancing Risks
Each insecticide decision carries with it a variable combination of risks. Isadora Bordini, Al Fournier, Steve Naranjo, Naomi Pier, and Peter Ellsworth have developed this guide in the hopes of aiding field managers in this, sometimes difficult, decision-making process. This two-page guide includes a table of cotton insecticides commonly used and information on their selectivity, efficacy, and associated risks along with a page that explains how the table is to be used and an explanation of how to interpret the information in order to identify, balance and prioritize all insecticide risks, by considering each spray decision on a case-by-case basis to fit the unique requirements of a situation.
Dose Responses of Field Populations of Alfalfa Weevil from Various Western States to Lambda-Cyhalothrin® Using a Feeding and Contacting Assay
Insects, including alfalfa weevil (AW), are known for their genetic ability to develop resistance to insecticides. In a population of an insect species, there may be a few individuals that carry the genes for resistance to a chemical. Upon exposure to insecticides, insects that do not carry the resistance genes die, thus allowing the individuals with the resistance genes to survive and reproduce, creating more resistant insects. With every subsequent generation and continued selection, the number of resistant insects increases; therefore, the insecticide becomes less effective in controlling the pest population. Ayman Mostafa and Kyle Harrington of the University of Arizona Cooperative Extension Field Crops IPM Program investigated lambda-cyhalothrin (Warrior II™) against AW to test for any resistance by comparing the dose-response of field populations of AW from seven states using feeding and contacting assay. The results of these experiments will be helpful to growers and the agriculture industry in the western region and around the nation as they decide which insecticides to use on their crops and which ones are most effective.
Frequently Asked Questions: Brown Stink Bugs
Find the answers to questions such as: Which species of brown-colored stink bugs are present in my field? Why is BSB suddenly a damaging pest in Arizona cotton? What does BSB damage look like? How do I sample accurately for BSB? What is the treatment threshold for BSB? and many more questions!
Improving Alfalfa Yield with Applications of Balanced Fertilizers
Among the potentials for enhancing production, profitability, and nutrition efficiencies of alfalfa crops is through effective use of fertilizers. For many soils in the low desert of Arizona, phosphorus (P) as a phosphate fertilizer is very commonly applied prior to planting alfalfa. Potassium (K) is assumed to be abundantly available in desert soils; therefore, not typically applied to crops. Nitrogen (N) fertilizer is generally not applied for alfalfa production since alfalfa can obtain its own N from N-fixing nodules. Specific information about the interactions and effects of P and K on alfalfa yield and quality for Arizona has not been developed. This publication by Ayman Mostafa and Worku Burayu of the University of Arizona Cooperative Extension Field Crops Program investigated and demonstrated the importance of balanced fertilizer applications to maximize alfalfa yield.
Insect Pests of Desert-Grown Alfalfa: Egyptian Alfalfa Weevil
Populations of Egyptian alfalfa weevil (EAW) are variable across Arizona. It is critical to correctly distinguish EAW larvae and adults from other insects which could be in the field at this time of year. We developed a short 1-page publication to help with that.
Sampling Soil for Root Knot Nematode
The Root-knot nematode (RKN), Meloidogyne incognita, is a serious pest that infects cotton as well as sorghum, corn, melons, watermelon, peppers, beans, and many other crops. The RKN is usually found in sandy or sandy loam soils and is most active in the summer when soil temperatures are warm. This parasitic nematode is an obligate parasite that must complete its life cycle in a plant host, but eggs are persistent and can remain inactive in the absence of a host and/or in fallow fields for months or years. Infection of RKN causes swellings (galls) on the roots. In cotton, these swellings are usually small and hard to detect. As a result, plants may be heavily infected even though galls are not easily visible. Accurate diagnosis of RKN infestation usually requires laboratory analysis for detection and identification. Good samples are important for accurate identification and quantification.
Potential New Pest of Pecans Rapid Communication
The Arizona Pest Management Center put together this IPM short publication to rapidly alert the pecan industry of an insect being observed currently in central Arizona. A mirid plant bug has been observed in high numbers on the catkins of some central Arizona pecan orchards. Multiple growers report this for the first time and have expressed concerns about potential impacts to the crop. This rapid communication is designed to provide the limited knowledge we have about this potential pest. Growers are encouraged to review this information with their pest control advisor to determine what action, if any, is required.
Nondormant Alfalfa Varieties for Arizona 2020
The 2020 nondormant alfalfa variety testing for Arizona publication by Mike Ottman is now available. The article includes information on determining an appropriate fall dormancy class of varieties, choosing varieties that help mitigate major and potential pest problems, and factoring the importance of salt tolerance and Roundup Ready. There are several alfalfa varieties that have been tested for pest resistance ratings, yield, and final stand for nondormant alfalfa varieties in Arizona and Holtville, CA in 2020.